an introduction

Crust ... that part of the earth, which encases the solid mass and extends to a depth of several miles from the surface, which brings in some areas Banja mountains high-rise, or fall in other regions to be the Jordan Valley and the deepest seas ... crust is composed of igneous rocks, which yields for exposure to various factors are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

That might know that rock: all solid material to be part of the Earth's crust is made up of several metal or metals or organic material.

The rocks can be divided according to its inception into three sections:

Igneous rocks:

These rocks are formed as a result of hardening of the molten material which, either in the depths Mkuth igneous rocks underground, or at shallow depths consists rocks under the surface or directly on the surface of the earth is made up of volcanic rocks.

The general characteristics of igneous:

1. exist in the form of blocks have different forms.

2. consist in most cases of amorphous metals.

3. The presence of metal ores.

4. does not contain fossils.

Forms of igneous rocks:

1. dam consists overlap liquid Alsharri parallel to the surfaces of the layers.

2. categorical: Anchae overlap Alsharri liquid in the form of shingles vertical surfaces conclusive classes.

3. deep blocs: huge blocks are the roots of mountain ranges and stretches for hundreds of kilometers.

4. mainstay: deep blocks are considered parts of the deep blocks.

5. volcanoes: Ptforeig Alshary arise on the earth's surface composed forms of repression

The mineralogical composition of igneous: and is divided into two types:

1: primary metals: consists of liquid directly Alsharri during coolness:

(A) Base metals: Metals Filsay (quartz, feldspars, Filspathwaid), Maver (olefin, pyroxene, amphibole, mica).

B - extra minerals (apatite, zircon).

2: High metals: the result of the change or transformation of primary minerals such as kaolin and chlorite fabric of igneous rocks: the output format for agglutination granules composed of rock and divided into very coarse granularity, rough graininess, average graininess, meticulous graininess.

Igneous rocks rating:

Ultramafic minerals ratio (color) Light color (<30%) Color Range (30-60%) dark color (60-90%) above the dark color (> 90%).

Asalka acidic ratio (> 66%), moderate (52-66%) Maver (42-52%) over Maver (<42%)
The place of composition and the degree of graininess volcanic rocks (min graininess) rhyolite andesite basalt aquifer rocks (coarse granularity) Granite diorite Gabro peridotite, Donat.

Sedimentary rocks :

Arise from the deposition of sedimentary rocks fragmented or dissolved in water and the material that results from exposure to various factors rock weathering and natural erosion lead to the fragmentation of the rocks Almkaniki.

The general characteristics of the sedimentary rocks:

1. brittle rocks.

2. classes.

3. The existence of fossils.

4. consist of a round or granules of metal crystals.

5. contain a lot of mineral ores.

6. pastel colors.

7. have special structures: Signs of neem, mud cracks.

Sedimentary rocks rating:

1. sedimentary rocks mechanical configuration: it consists of minerals resulting from the mechanical fragmentation for all types of rock granules, and the transfer of pulverized materials by water or air or ice ponds Altersab.o divided on the basis of particle size:

Alkoonjlemrat: grains crystallized and size ranges between 2 mm and 250 mm, and of which Alabaster (grains crystallized with parts shaped).

Sandstone: Qatar and grains crystallized between 2 and 1/16 mm.

Traction alluvial: Qatar and grains crystallized between 1/16 and 1/256.

Clay stone: grains crystallized less than 1/256, and if the form of stone clay in the form of parallel chips generated by clicking the fact it was called (a child).

2. sedimentary rocks chemical composition: formed by deposition of dissolved compounds in aqueous solutions operations evaporation, or as a result of chemotherapy center containing a change:

Calcareous sedimentary rocks: limestone and dolomite.

Sedimentary rock salt: such as food and salt gypsum (calcium sulphate and Alanhdric (anhydrous calcium sulfate).

Sedimentary rocks Sulaikih: deposition of material from silica colloidal solutions such as flint (Filnt).

3. sedimentary rocks chemical-Almkanikih configuration: a mix of chemicals upbringing (calcium carbonate) with mechanical materials upbringing (silt), such as (marl).

4. sedimentary rocks membership configuration: the accumulation of organic material remnants left by animals or plants that live in the sea or land, as well as decomposition processes (roasted plant and animal decomposition of the remains of structures). One of these rocks:

Organic limestone or coral: consisting of calcium carbonate structures of marine animals.

Phosphates: accumulation and decomposition of marine animal structures (calcium phosphate).

Coal: roasted produces plants that are exposed to rapid burial will prevent the interaction with atmospheric oxygen and thus are retained carbon.

Structures sedimentary rocks:

1. stratification: Mel rock components that take a horizontal position in the form of layers.

2. stratification gradient: the large granules are down and then topped smaller.

3. The cross-stratification: the intersection of stratification levels with the level of sedimentation (with the current direction).

4. browsing: the existence of the rock in the form of parallel foil with a thickness of less than 2 mm.

5. ripple marks: ripples on the surface of the sediment as a result of exposure to wind or water.

6. cracks in the mud: When exposed sediment mud for a period of drought after a wet period.

Metamorphic rocks:

Are the rocks were originally sedimentary or motorcycle, happened to her change in shape or mineral composition or Klehma- Tolh- rocks as a result of the influence of high pressure, or extreme heat or both or the impact of chemical solutions, transformation processes occur in rock and is in its solid state.

General characteristics:

1. carry some properties and original compositions by the shift (stratification, digs).

2. The emergence of new metals.

3. foliation: reshaping and metals Order (flat) so that they are more parallel.

4. exist in active tectonic places.

5. forms of multiple colors.

Transformation factors:

1. Heat
2. Pressure
3. chemically active solutions

Types of transformation:

1. Pyrolysis: like turning marble and dolomite Alhornvels switched from limestone, which is a limited deployment.

2. Dynamic Transformation: the result of the pressure that leads to cracking or stacking rocks like Almilonat.

3. Shift Aldnamaki- thermal (regional): Occurs joint effect of both pressure and temperature, such as gneiss and Aalhest, and be widespread.

4. The self-transformation: is produced by the chemical activity of warm liquids and gases such as rocks Alserbntnpt

Fabric shift: Figure resulting from the presence of granules or crystals Almtonh of rock in a special way next to each other, and metamorphic rocks of the three main tissues:

1. Non-textile Matturq: results from the thermal transformation that leads to the re-crystallization of the metal components of the original rock before switching without changing the form of granules.

2. textile mutawarriq: results from regional Althob, features rows of crystals line up in the form of chips or parallel belts, Alhustoza -alnisoza.

3. Dynamic pressure Fabric: results from the effect of the pressure-oriented, and due to the heterogeneity of rock composition, produced from the fabric of my girl so precise or coarse fabric or in the form lenses longitudinal column on the direction of the pressure.