The need for GIS



The need for GIS

an introduction

* During the past two decades, the manifestations of the scientific communications revolution related to geographic systems have surfaced, which were represented in:

First: The huge amount of data and information, especially geographical information.

Statistics - censuses - environmental information - maps of all kinds - quick exchange of information led to a glut of information and the difficulty of dealing with it.

Second, a technological revolution in the development of computers and the complexity of their uses, whether in (institutions + companies + personal)

Availability of software, hardware and tools.

Provides programs for linking information and data to their geographical locations through geographical coordinates.

The use of technology in all branches of geography.

The merging of the two revolutions led to the information revolution and the technology revolution, which led to the transfer of information with high efficiency and accuracy, and to reach accurate and fast results.

Geographical information systems are the most prominent and widely used, due to their comprehensiveness and wide application areas.

The importance of geographic information systems:

Information gathering - storing - categorizing - analyzing - retrieval - updating - displaying - modifying and using maps constantly - retrieval quickly and with high efficiency - printing maps - and creating reports.

The use of geographic information systems in emergency as long as the information is in the database in one of the systems used and illustrated on maps by linking the information.

* Geographical information systems have many names that are consistent in the field of application, including: -

- Academic information systems (detailed).

Combined geographic information systems.

- Geospatial information systems.

Regional information systems.

Planning information systems.

Environmental information systems.

Spatial information systems.

Ground information systems.

The advantages of information systems in general:

1- Ease of work and saving time and effort.

2- Accuracy and speed.

3- The ability to update, renew, add or delete.

4- Objectivity, complete impartiality and complete clarity.

5- The ability to analyze and measure maps and perform statistical operations.

6- Linking between different information sources.

7- Information layers - placing a large number of maps on top of each other.

8- Forecasting and forecasting the future.

9- Addition and innovation.

* Areas of use of GIS:

1- General areas:

Environment - population - urbanization - planning - natural resource management - natural disasters - production and mapping - military fields.

2- Geographical areas:

Urban geography - mapping and design - natural resources - geomorphology - climate - population - use - geographical problems.

* Geographical information systems are not interested in science without others.

* Geographical information systems do not mean the exchange of digital information in terms of quality and quantity.

* Geographical information systems allow linking spatial information.

* In other words, linking information to a spatial space on the surface of the globe, that is, information with a spatial location on the real coordinate system on the surface of the Earth without the necessity of being restricted to the type of information.

The difference between GIS and some previous systems:

1- Computer design systems:

Engineering design and drawing systems are used in several engineering fields. However, linking spatial elements (graphics) to descriptive databases in these systems is very specific (the coding system). These systems do not include storage and use of topological relationships for spatial elements.

It is one of the engineering applications by means of the computer, which is used in drawing, engineering design, architectural plans, and their utility networks such as sewage, electricity and water. It is in many forms, whether two- or three-dimensional, and is also used in the process of digitizing the different types of topographic maps due to the speed and accuracy of the system.

2- Cartography systems: where the focus is on classification and automatic coding, and these systems can be linked with database management programs and benefit from them for classification and coding processes, but in the absence of topological relationships.

3- Database management systems:

They are primarily systems developed for storing, retrieving and manipulating metadata.

4- Remote sensing systems:

They are systems developed for storing, retrieval and processing of anchor data (Raster) that can process data in radioactive form and process very specific metadata.

* Methods of working in GIS:

Geographical information systems are mainly based on linking a large amount of data and spatial and descriptive information.

In ordinary maps, it is possible to show geographical phenomena, but write any information next to it, write simple information.

- But GIS, the phenomenon on the map can be linked to information to identify the characteristics of this phenomenon.

* Geographical information systems benefit from informational concepts from the information systems that preceded them.

* GIS can be considered as a product of developing, integrating and using the information concepts that preceded it.

* GIS data sources:

The sources of the GIS database are many, varied and varied, and vary according to the goal for which it is set. We mention some of the sources:

1- Topographic maps 2- Aerial images 3- Remote sensing images 4- Real estate plans.

5- Topographical charts. 6- Annular areal measurements. 7- Geodetic networks for the region.

8- Environmental information that includes all distributions and environmental and human influences. 9- Land use information.

10- Information of real estate interests. 11- Agricultural coverage information. 12 - Infrastructure network information.

13- Administrative and legislative information. 14 - Traffic information. 15- Various statistical information.